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tv   60 Minutes  CBS  January 22, 2012 7:00pm-8:00pm PST

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captioning funded by cbs and ford-- built for the road ahead. >> pelley: tonight on this special edition of "60 minutes presents," "into the wild." if you could go just one place anywhere on the planet to see the most spectacular wildlife, this is it. it's called the great migration. millions of animals on an endless march of life... and death. it's one of the greatest shows on earth.
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and we thought you should see it now, because there's no guarantee it'll be around forever. >> simon: elephants communicate in a complicated, sophisticated language that scientists are trying to decipher and compile into the world's first elephant dictionary. >> there are protest calls. ( elephant roars ) in newborns, you have a very high cry. and when you hear it, you know it's a very, very young calf. ( elephant squeals ) >> simon: these fearsome noises are actually elephants greeting one another. "glad to see you." "come a little closer." >> logan: what do you love about them? >> just everything. >> logan: we share more than 98% of our dna with chimps, and jane goodall was the first to understand that we share much more than that with them. >> it's obvious watching them
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that they could be happy and sad. and then, the communication signals-- kissing, embracing, holding hands, shaking the fist, swaggering. they're just like us. follow the wings.
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>> pelley: good evening. i'm scott pelley. welcome to "60 minutes presents." over the last several years, we've had some great adventures into the wild. and tonight, we're going to bring you along on some of our favorite trips. we begin with "the great migration." if you could go just one place, anywhere on the planet, to see the most spectacular wildlife, you'd want to head east to catch a sight that comes around every year, but for only a short time. millions of animals on an endless march of life and death and rebirth. we'll save most of the superlatives for the pictures, because you might agree this is one of the greatest shows on earth, and we thought you should see it again now because there is no guarantee it'll be around forever. there was a time when epic migrations were common-- millions of buffalo in north america, for example.
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but today, to see what that must have been like, you have to travel to east africa. here, in late summer, more than a million wildebeest cross the volcanic plain of the masai mara in kenya, pushing through one of the most awe-inspiring wildlife habitats on earth-- nearly everything africa has to offer, all in one place. the dry season is moving the herds, concentrating them where there is still grass and water. it's a march of 350 miles up from the serengeti national park in tanzania to the masai mara national reserve in kenya and back again.
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american scientist robin reid was hooked the very first time she saw it as a student. she's on the faculty at colorado state university, and has spent decades studying the animals and the masai people who share the land with the mara migration. >> robin reid: we don't have migrations anymore this large. so this is the only one that stands by itself that is this large. now, if you're talking about butterflies or you're talking about birds, you're talking about, you know, smaller animals-- absolutely. you easily get up into these kinds of numbers. but as far as big animals, you know, that are walking long distance, you know, this is the one. >> pelley: this is the last one on earth. >> reid: yep, the last one on earth that is this large. >> pelley: "wildebeest" is dutch for "wild beast," which may refer more to its appearance than any ferocity. it's a relative of the antelope, but it's unlike anything you've ever seen. they call lions "regal" and elephants "majestic." i wonder what you'd call a wildebeest?
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>> reid: ( laughs ) i think they look insane. their horns are kind of, you know, this way and that. and then they have these big shoulders, and why in the heck is that? and they're a funny color. you know, they're not pretty. and they've got a long tail. you know, they're... they're put together in pieces. >> pelley: well, somebody once said it looks like an animal that's made out of spare parts. >> reid: and that's very apt. >> pelley: along with the wildebeest, there are hundreds of thousands of zebra, nearly half a million gazelles, and all of them crossing the territory of predators, including lion... hyena... this cheetah that we found with her three newborn cubs... and the biggest predator of them all-- crocodiles that patrol the mara river, which cuts right through the migration route. this is easily the most dramatic point in the entire year-long
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migration. there comes a time that the wildebeest and their calves have to cross the mara river. you can't believe how big these crocodiles are. one of them is at least 15 feet long. but the wildebeest have to come over in order to feed, and the crocodiles know that. a wildebeest may go through ten migrations in its lifetime. and to see them hesitate at the bank, it's as though many of them knew what was coming. first, two wildebeest scramble across. the next group takes the plunge right into the waiting crocs. the big croc strikes and has the wildebeest's horns between its jaws. a second crocodile attacks... then a third...
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a fourth... and a fifth. now, it's a struggle to find enough water to pull the wildebeest down to drown. in the few days that it takes the herds to cross the river, the crocs will bring down enough food to last for months. once the wildebeest see where the crocs are, the herd runs upstream and surges across by the hundreds. no one can say how long this migration has thrived, but on the mara river, we began to see
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evidence that its future is not a sure thing. usually, the wildebeest swim across, but now the river is very low. could what has happened to other migrations in the world happen here? >> reid: of course. of course, absolutely. the thing i'm most worried about for the future is the... the mara river and the amount of water in it. it's just the... you know, kind of the main artery of the... of the ecosystem, and it's very important. >> pelley: this is that artery that robin reid is talking about, and the best way to see it is from the air. the mara river rises in a place called the mau forest, and it meanders about 250 miles or so down to lake victoria. the masai tell us that there is less water in the river now than at any time they can remember. and if the mara river went away, what impact would it have on all this? >> reid: we're not absolutely
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sure. but in the dry season, it's the only thing that flows. and so if that water went away, then the wildebeest population would collapse. >> pelley: collapse? >> reid: yes. >> pelley: what do you mean by collapse? >> reid: you know, i don't actually know if there would be very many left, actually. not just the wildebeest-- it would be many of the other species that require water. >> pelley: you would lose hundreds of thousands of these animals? >> reid: oh, yes, absolutely, absolutely. in fact, the estimates are-- and you know, this is a guess-- is that if the river were to dry up completely, okay, in the very first week after it dried up, we'd lose about 400,000 animals that would die. >> pelley: in a week? >> reid: in a week, yes. and, you know, maybe that's an overestimate, but even if it's in a month, that's a lot. >> pelley: we wanted to find out why the mara river seems to be drying up, so we headed north to its source, the mau forest. the first thing you notice are wheat fields where the trees used to be. and beyond the expanding farms,
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we headed toward smoke on the horizon. the trip brought us here. we're about five miles from the mara river. this isn't a wheat field yet, but it soon will be. what happens before the forest becomes a wheat field is that charcoalers move to the area and cut down the trees to make one of the principal fuels for cooking. the mau forest is falling to a growing population that's trying to make a living off the land. for centuries, the mau has been a sponge, holding and releasing waters into the river. to scientists, the equation is simple-- if there's no mau forest, there's no mara river, and that means no migration. now, saving the mau forest has become a crisis in kenya, pitting the government against its own people. the government has forcibly evicted as many as 50,000 settlers from the mau. we saw it in the village of
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nkaroni, which was settled in the forest more than 30 years ago. the kenyan government, back in the 1990s, even gave some of the villagers title to the land. it says "nature of title: absolute." ( applause ) you take it to mean absolute. well, not exactly. a new government has turned on them. now, it says, to save the forest, villages like this have to go. in 2005, the government sent security forces to burn homes, schools and churches. but still, the people refuse to leave. >> ( translated ): we will stay. we will not go anywhere. if they want to kill us, they kill us. >> pelley: you would die right here? >> ( translated ): yes. >> pelley: the villagers in the forest don't see why their families should be uprooted for a wildlife refuge they've never seen.
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but we found a different story down river in the mara itself, where the growing population of masai has been willing to compromise. >> dickson kaelo: the population is a wild problem. it's growing, and its growing everywhere. >> pelley: dickson kaelo works for a non-profit foundation that's paying the masai to turn over management of their land to a wildlife conservancy. >> kaelo: many of the families, before the conservancy started, were very poor, and quite a number of them now are able to survive and diversify away from just keeping cattle. >> pelley: the masai had been expanding their farms and grazing cattle near the migration routes. now, the conservancy manages their land for wildlife, tourists pay to see the wildlife, and the masai get a cut of the profits. families we talked to say they bring in an extra $200 a month, enough to send the kids to school. so this is all part of the conservancy?
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kaelo has brought more than 400 square miles under management, and that's growing. >> kaelo: i think the children of our children of our children would like to experience the migration. it doesn't matter whether they are living in china or in the far east or in america, they would like to know that the migration is still continuing. >> pelley: as the wildebeest moved out of the masai mara, we could see the beginnings of next year's spectacle. the elephants were raising their calves, and that cheetah was feeding her cubs on a gazelle she'd killed. cheetah cubs chirp like birds. and if they survive, they will still be with their mother when the wildebeest come around again. this perpetual cycle is a robust force of nature.
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but with the mara river running low and man crowding the route, no oe can be certain how many turns are left for this, the last spectacle of its kind. we'll be back in a moment with "the secret language of elephants." >> cbs money watch update sponsored by: >> good evening, house speaker john boehner said future payroll tax cuts could be tied to the keystone pipeline. the price of a first class stamp is up a penny today to 45 cents. and underworld awakening won the weekend box office with $25.4 million. i'm jeff glor, cbs news. -i love this card. -with the bankamericard cash rewards credit card,
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>> pelley: for two decades, a group of wild african elephants
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has been watched over, studied and protected by their own guardian angel, an extraordinary american scientist named andrea turkalo. andrea's own story is pretty amazing, but as bob simon discovered, not nearly as compelling as the insights into elephant behavior that her research has revealed, especially when it comes to the secret language of elephants. elephants communicate in a complicated, sophisticated language that scientists are trying to decipher and compile into the world's first elephant dictionary. when we heard that all of this is happening in one of the most magical places on earth, a remote clearing in central africa where forest elephants-- the rarest, most mysterious, and most threatened member of the species-- congregate, well, we simply had to go. >> simon: the sangha river flows through the congo basin, along the border between cameroon and the central african republic, in
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the second largest rain forest on earth. this remote corner of the world is the place andrea turkalo, a field biologist from taunton, massachusetts, has called home for nearly two decades. andrea lives in a compound that she and a group of pygmies built from scratch. the pygmies help her run the place. commuting to her job is a hike. the last couple of miles took us through some interesting terrain. >> andrea turkalo: okay, now we're going to enter the forest. and the advice i like to give everyone at this point is to stick together. >> simon: stick together? >> turkalo: yeah. because if we happen to run into elephants, we should all stay together and move in the same direction so we don't confuse them. >> simon: we don't want a confused elephant. a confused elephant could be dangerous. fortunately, running into one on the trail is rare. so who made this trail, andrea? >> turkalo: this was made by hundreds of years of elephant traffic in this forest. >> simon: elephants made the trail? >> turkalo: yeah, i mean, if you look at their feet, it's obvious. they... you know, they do a lot of road work. >> simon: the elephants have stomped out the equivalent of a vast interstate highway system.
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it took us past giant teak trees, through a thick primordial forest. andrea has hiked this trail twice a day for nearly 20 years. where does it go? we could hear something before we could see anything. suddenly, the trail ended, and right before us was an opening called the dzanga clearing, and more than 50 forest elephants. the setting was extraordinary-- straight out of "jurassic park"- - tranquil, aside from an occasional roar. ( elephant squeals ) andrea, do you remember the very first time you saw this place? >> turkalo: yeah. it was in the late '80s. and i actually slept here. >> simon: slept here? >> turkalo: yeah. and i slept on the ground in a tent. and all night, there was this symphony of elephants. and when i woke in the morning, it was like i had landed in paradise. >> simon: the clearing is a
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watering hole, a spa, and a sanctuary, a place where elephants take their time, the measured, graceful pace of the largest land animal on earth. they come to the clearing for the minerals, which they can't seem to get enough of. it's a place where elephants play. these elephants are playing, sort of amateur wrestling for pachyderms. nobody gets hurt. kids fall and get up, the way kids do. this elephant is giving himself a massage, a tree massage. here's one trying to hide, unsuccessfully. all this, and so much more, observed by andrea and others, day after day. >> turkalo: it's been now 19 years that i've been observing this particular population of elephants. >> simon: it's a very long time? >> turkalo: yeah, it is a long time. but it takes a long time to know elephants. >> simon: when andrea first came here, she knew almost nothing about forest elephants. today, she's the world's leading expert on them.
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from an observation deck on the edge of the clearing, she collects scientific data for cornell university and the wildlife conservation society. she watches elephants almost every day, for hours, counting their numbers, monitoring their health, and observing their social behavior. what are the basic differences between the boys and the girls? >> turkalo: females and their young stay together for longer periods of time. as you can see, these groups are made up of adult females and their young. and bulls tend to leave their groups early and be solitary. but they occasionally meet up with their families and speak to each other. >> simon: but the boys go off on their own and just sort of drop by now and then? >> turkalo: yeah. they like adventure. ( laughter ) they don't like the group life. >> simon: are there other ways in which elephants are like us? >> turkalo: the females tend to be... like to be courted by older, experienced males. >> simon: uh-huh. they don't like the young ones? >> turkalo: no, the young ones want to get to the point too quickly. ( laughter ) ( elephant sounds ) >> simon: now, what are they
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making noise about right now? >> turkalo: that's the penelope family. and it's their way of saying hello. >> simon: andrea knows it's the penelope family because she named them and nearly a thousand other elephants. she also recognizes them by their voices, voices researchers are trying to translate into what could someday become an elephant dictionary. i find this elephant dictionary you're compiling exceedingly fascinating. i mean, how large a dictionary will it be? >> turkalo: we don't know. we have to really know a lot more about the behavior of these animals to sort of sort out these different vocalizations and what they mean. >> simon: andrea's expertise brought her to the attention of cornell university. peter wrege, a behavioral biologist from cornell, says the dictionary is still in its early stages. >> peter wrege: we're in kindergarten. we're just learning the very first few words. and andrea is going to help us put those words together. >> simon: and you say we're in kindergarten now? >> wrege: yes. >> simon: are we in the process of compiling the child's dictionary? >> wrege: even an infant's
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dictionary. ( laughs ) it's a very, very complex process because we can't ask the elephant, "what did you just say?" >> simon: but they can match elephant sounds with behavior they can see, and classify those sounds into distinct categories. can you tell me what some of them are? >> turkalo: well, there's these low frequency rumbles. it sounds like a big cat purring. and those are the... those are the vocalizations that help keep groups in contact with each other. there are protest calls. in newborns, you have a particularly very high cry. and when you hear it, you know it's a very, very young calf. ( elephant squeals ) and some of these big bulls, when they go into musth-- which is this sexual state-- they make a special rumble, which is very low and very pulsing. ( elephant rumbles ) >> simon: most days, andrea works into the evenings,
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compiling data and exchanging information with researchers back in the u.s. via the internet, which she also uses to stay in touch with home. >> this is n.p.r. worldwide from washington... >> simon: the archive of elephant behavior and sound she's created is amazing and surprising. ( elephant sounds ) these fearsome noises are actually elephants greeting one another. "glad to see you." "come a little closer" ( elephant sounds ) these are sounds of annoyance. the big bulls are telling the youngsters to hit the road. back in 2000, andrea filmed the death of a baby, and the traumatized cries of the other elephants. these elephants kept poking the body over and over, frantically trying to coax the baby back to life. then, the elephants formed a procession that filed past the body.
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>> turkalo: they'd feel it or they'd smell it, and then they'd vocalize. it was like a funeral procession that went on three or four days. >> simon: must have been an amazing sight. >> turkalo: they seem to recognize death, and it upsets them. it sort of brought home how emotional these animals are. >> simon: but it turns out that these vocalizations are just a small fraction of the sounds elephants make. until a few years ago, scientists had no idea that most of what elephants are saying can't be heard by the human ear. >> wrege: the base of their vocalization is infrasonic. in other words, the frequency on which their call is built is below what we can hear. >> simon: the elephants use those low sounds to find one another in the dense forests where they spend most of their time. >> wrege: elephants are using very low frequencies in their which travel far. this... >> simon: how far? >> wrege: at least two or three kilometers. >> simon: no kidding? more than a mile? >> wrege: yes, and... >> simon: an elephant standing here can communicate with sound with an elephant more than a mile away? >> wrege: yes. ( bell rings )
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>> simon: 6,000 miles away in upstate new york, at a lab at cornell university, researchers are listening to everything from the sound of hummingbirds to the sound of whales. the elephant listening project grew out of an accidental discovery made by its founder, katy payne, one of the world's leading experts on elephant communication. >> katy payne: i love animals, right? so i went to the zoo. >> simon: the elephant cage? >> payne: elephant cage, and i began to realize that i was feeling a throbbing in my ears and in the air that i couldn't really explain. and i said, "you know, do you suppose elephants are making sounds below the pitches that i can hear?" and we recorded for a month and, lo and behold, we found that elephants had a great many sounds that people didn't know about. >> simon: she gave us examples of sound that we can hear. ( elephant rumbles )
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>> payne: a sound which i interpret generally as, "everything is in order." >> simon: "everything's okay with the world." >> payne: "everything's okay." >> simon: but then, how do you discover the meaning of these sounds? >> payne: you just watch and watch and watch, and record and record and record, and keep the two together. >> simon: which brings us back to andrea. once or twice a year, she visits cornell with her latest recordings. and you're giving them material with which they work? >> turkalo: yes. this is a scene we filmed on the first of may, the first birth we've witnessed in 19 years. >> ooh! look at this. >> simon: after ooh-ing and aah- ing over the new baby, as anyone would, the scientists get down to the business of figuring out what the elephant sounds mean. >> i'm betting that these two calls are the same individual. >> turkalo: yeah. >> simon: figuring out which elephant is talking, where it's located, and what it's saying has been a big challenge. researchers initially strung nine acoustic recording devices around the clearing.
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as the sound reached each recorder at a different time, they could pinpoint the location of the speaking elephant. picking up sounds too low to hear was another challenge, but recording the sounds normally and playing them back faster was a revelation. for example, the clearing at night sounds like this. ( cricket sounds ) played back three times faster, this is what the clearing sounds like. ( fast-paced squeaking ) you can hear the elephants rumbling calls. but to figure out what the calls mean, the cornell team spends more time looking than listening. using these computer-generated spectrograms, they can see the low-frequency sounds. >> wrege: and then, we can actually visually look at the calls. >> simon: and what does this visualization tell us? >> wrege: it tells us that there's incredible complexity. many of their calls are actually similar, in some ways, to human speech. >> simon: peter, does all this
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research into elephant sounds have any practical purpose? >> wrege: we're using sound recordings to monitor forest elephants because they are so difficult to see. and this becomes more and more critical because their population is threatened. so, knowing where the animals are gives us a way to begin attacking what has to be preserved or where do we need to put more protection. >> simon: protection, because poaching has become almost epidemic. it's estimated that, annually, 10% of dzanga's elephants are killed for their ivory. andrea works closely with dzanga's armed guards, but so far, their efforts have not stopped the slaughter. do you see it as your personal responsibility to protect the elephants here? >> turkalo: i've made it my personal responsibility. for me, if i've been given this great privilege to study this particular population of elephants, i think my priority is to protect them. otherwise, i have no right to study them. ( elephant sounds ) >> simon: excuse me, we have a vocalization. >> turkalo: that's a protest.
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>> simon: a protest? >> turkalo: that's somebody who's probably being refused something by its mother. >> simon: baby elephants protest in a rather loud fashion, don't they? >> turkalo: yeah, yeah. they're just like little bratty children. ( laughter ) >> simon: andrea believes if she weren't here, the clearing would become a killing field. it's clear that, in a very pragmatic sense, you are saving the elephants. >> turkalo: but in another sense, they've saved me. i have something very important in my life to do. and i think a lot of people don't get to do that. >> simon: andrea plans to stay here at least another 15 years. and as night falls over her clearing and fishermen float gently down the sangha, you can hear the crickets. what you can't hear are the elephants, but that doesn't mean they aren't talking. >> pelley: when we return, going back to africa with jane goodall.
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>> pelley: humans share more than 98% of the same dna with chimpanzees, which is probably why there's always been a fascination with them. what we know of them is mostly because of one woman who's name
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has become synonymous with chimps-- jane goodall. she was launched to fame by "national geographic," whose stories about her life in an african forest with chimpanzees made her an iconic figure. she was the first to discover that wild chimpanzees were capable of making and using tools, a revelation that turned the scientific world upside- down, challenging the convention that tool-making was one of the things that made humans unique. 50 years later, jane goodall considers her role now to be more important than ever, which is why lara logan wanted to go back with her to africa. >> logan: there's only one way to get to the gombe forest-- by boat. >> jane goodall: the hills there, you know, which are like a desert now? when i arrived in 1960, in july, those hills were forest. >> logan: we traveled with her across lake tanganyika, the longest lake in the world, and
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then into the forest which jane goodall called home for decades. she first came to tanzania, to this stretch of tropical forest on the remote eastern shores of the lake to study chimpanzees, when she was 26 years old, a young girl from england with no scientific training-- just a notebook and binoculars. how would you describe what it was like 50 years ago? >> goodall: it was a kind of magical place where i never knew each day what i might see or discover. >> logan: we followed the forest trails for hours through the towering trees and tangled vines, searching for jane goodall's chimpanzees. then, that unmistakable sound... ( chimp squealing ) that led us right to them. oh, look at that little baby. >> goodall: it's pretty amazing, the entire family. >> logan: jane instantly
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recognized her favorite family, three generations right there in front of us. she's followed this family for 50 years and gave them the names they're still known by today. what do you love about them? >> goodall: just everything. >> logan: this is little google. at nearly two years old, he's one of the youngest here. and his mother, gaia, who jane's known for 17 years. his grandmother is gremlin. jane says she's one of the oldest and most gentle chimps in the forest. she's known her since she was born, in 1970. jane, jane. >> goodall: yeah. i can hear. >> logan: who's that? >> goodall: glitter. >> logan: 12 year old glitter is little google's aunt. today, the chimps are so used to humans, they don't mind getting close. but since it's now known that chimps can catch our infectious diseases, we had to keep a safe distance. when jane arrived here in 1960,
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she had the opposite problem. at first, the chimps didn't want to come near you. >> goodall: yes, first, they were afraid. then, they became belligerent. and then, when i wouldn't go away, well... ( laughs ) "i guess she's okay." they came to trust. >> logan: that trust allowed jane to enter the world of these wild animals, and the personal details she spent years documenting today constitute the largest scientific database in the world for this species. >> goodall: it was obvious watching them that they could be happy and sad. and then, the communication signals-- kissing, embracing, holding hands, patting on the back, shaking the fist, swaggering, throwing rocks. all of these things done in the same context we do them. >> logan: how did you see their sense of humor? >> goodall: i've seen a mother laugh when she hears her older child, who hasn't paid attention and he hasn't noticed which way
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she's gone. and the older child is going through the forest, whimpering, crying, you know... ( imitates call ) and the mother's up in the tree, quite quiet. and you hear her going... ( imitates chimp laugh ) just laughing. >> logan: can you make a greeting? >> goodall: let me get in the mood of doing the pant grunt greeting. yes. ( pants, grunts ) and the laughing, which is ( imitates chimp laugh ) and can get quite loud. >> logan: it does sound like laughing. >> goodall: yeah, it does sound like laughing. it is laughing. >> logan: we spent 12 hours in the forest with jane goodall, before we witnessed firsthand what made her so famous. chimpanzees use sticks as tools to fish for termites.
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her discovery was initially received with some skepticism. >> goodall: some of the scientists thought i had taught them. >> logan: that would have been quite an achievement. >> goodall: especially as i couldn't get near them back then. it would have been very clever. >> logan: with the discovery came research funding from the national geographic society, and fame. >> in 1960, miss jane goodall arrives in tanzania. her discoveries here will startle the scientific world, and lead to the possible redefinition of the word "man". ♪ >> goodall: the films and the... and the magazines took this early footage all around the world, but particularly to the u.s. >> logan: it changed everything. >> goodall: it changed everything. yeah. >> logan: and made you world famous. >> goodall: the chimps made me famous, yes. >> logan: we watched some of
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those old films... >> goodall: that is such a famous shot. it was so amazing. >> logan: ... images that captivated the world. >> goodall: there was definitely a bit of beauty and the beast. i mean, i know that. this young girl... i see myself back then, when i look at myself. and i... yeah, no wonder the men fell in love. >> logan: look at you, you're barefoot here. >> goodall: yes, that's figan. >> logan: what's he doing? >> goodall: playing. we didn't know back then that chimps caught all our infectious diseases. there wasn't any feeling of doing anything wrong. it was amazing, incredible to be able to have that relationship with wild animals, wasn't it? >> logan: yes. >> goodall: yeah. >> logan: it was jane goodall's childhood fascination with animals that brought her to this remote corner of africa to study them. did you have a real sense of purpose when you landed on the shores? >> goodall: no, i think i had a real sense of adventure. >> logan: did you fall in love with africa?
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>> goodall: i fell in love with africa long before i ever went there. when i got there, it felt like coming home. >> logan: how would you describe the jane of those days? >> goodall: very naive, shy. very determined. always slightly startled that things were working out. and a terrible flirt. >> logan: you were a terrible flirt? >> goodall: oh, i was. ( laughter ) >> logan: was that well received? >> goodall: don't tell me you weren't. >> logan: this is not my story. while jane goodall's work had a huge impact, it was sometimes undermined by the fact that she had never studied science. was it hard to be taken seriously by the scientific community? >> goodall: oh, i was not taken very seriously by many of the scientists. i was known as a geographic cover girl. >> logan: what did you think of that? >> goodall: well, i didn't care. at least, i didn't think i did. because, you know, i was studying these chimpanzees, and if people thought i did it
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wrong, well, let them go and do it differently. but let me do it my way. >> logan: what did you find about them that you didn't like? >> goodall: i hated the fact that they could be very cruel and brutal, and that they have a dark side just like us. >> logan: another of jane goodall's discoveries-- that chimpanzees kill their own species, one more way they resemble humans. these images from the forest show a group attacking another chimp that's wandered onto their territory. jane says they beat them brutally and leave them to die of their wounds. did it surprise you that they could be so cruel? >> goodall: it did. i thought they were like us, but nicer. >> logan: and they're not? >> goodall: no, they're just like us. >> logan: at times, it was very dangerous for jane. this chimp, frodo, was particularly violent and nearly killed her one day. >> goodall: he flipping well
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came up, and dragged me down, stamped on me. it hurt. he bashed my head onto a rock, and it was bleeding. and then, he... then, he went away, and i thought, "oh, well, i've survived." and then, he came back and did it again. and then, he pushed me over the edge. and if there hadn't been some little bushes growing there, i wouldn't be here now, because it was a way big drop. >> logan: this is frodo's older brother, freud. although he looks menacing, bill wallauer, who filmed these pictures, says it's just a show meant to intimidate. >> bill wallauer: that's somebody. >> logan: it's a chimp? >> wallauer: yeah. >> logan: where? >> wallauer: just through the veg there, in the tree. >> logan: bill came here to work for the jane goodall institute, and lived in the forest for 15 years. >> wallauer: wow, look at those eyes. >> logan: the institute carries on jane's work here through bill, a team of researchers, and scientists who come from all over the world. >> wallauer: don't you get the feeling, when you're looking at him and he's looking at you, it's equal minds. >> logan: that's why you just
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want to talk to him. you just want to say hi. >> logan: jane goodall says she would still be living in the forest, but she had to leave to try to save the chimpanzees. their numbers have been falling ever since she arrived here-- from over a million then to less than 300,000 today. poaching and loss of habitat have made them an endangered species. at age 76, that keeps jane goodall on the road 300 days a year, from the halls of congress... to the stage of a packed rock concert... ( cheers and applause ) to a school in uganda, east africa. she's constantly raising money and raising awareness. >> goodall: you are so lucky to live near these amazing and wonderful creatures. tickle, tickle, tickle, tickle. you should laugh.
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yeah, that's better. >> logan: protecting chimpanzees is still at the core of jane goodall's mission today. she's helped create four sanctuaries, like this one in uganda for orphaned chimpanzees, and she's inspired 15 more across africa. to get so close to them, we had to be vaccinated. what are the reasons their mothers are killed? >> goodall: well, sometimes, it's bush meat, and there's still some of the live animal trade going on, which means you shoot the mother to take the baby. >> logan: how urgent is it to save these creatures? >> goodall: well, if they weren't here, they'd be dead. >> logan: as much as jane loves chimpanzees, there's something about her they seem to love. is that what a mother chimp would do? >> goodall: no. ( laughter ) >> logan: only mama jane. she liked it. >> goodall: yes, of course.
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so would a child. >> logan: they're so like children-- playful, curious... and very affectionate. for us, it was a final glimpse into jane's world, the woman who bridged the divide between humans and animals, and changed the way we think about them. >> goodall: we're part of the animal kingdom, not separated from it. we could have a blood transfusion from a chimp, if you matched the blood group. you really could. and the other way around, too. people say to me, "thank you for giving them characters and personalities." i didn't give them anything; i merely translated them for people. >> go to 60minutesovertime.com to hear the story of bill, the puppy that lara logan and the u.s. marines tried to rescue. sponsored by viagra
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